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The Anti-War Movement for Vietnam War

The United States contribution during the Vietnam War was a subject of much debate among the American public. Many Americans were in agreement with the U.S involvement in the Vietnam War. This was in agreement with the government that American assistance was needed in order to stop the increase of communism. However, other people felt that it was immoral for the government to involve itself with another country’s internal affairs. It was with this regard that the antiwar movements against Vietnam were formed in the United States in1965-1971. This was among the most significant movements in the U.S history. The rise of these movements in the U.S stimulated a lot of analysis and discussions of the anti-war movement during the War (DeBenedetti& Chatfield, 1990). The anti-war movement consisted of a numerous of independent interests, often vaguely allied and contending that were united in only opposing the Vietnam War.

The movement attracted members from the middle class suburbs, college campuses, government institutions and, labor unions. The movement later gained national reputation in 1965 and remained prevailing throughout the period of the clashes. Surrounding racial, cultural, and political environment, the anti-war movement exposed a deep rupture within the 1960s America culture. There are many myths that talk about the U.S movement that are against the Vietnam War. However, the most discussed myth is that the anti-war movement was the most important factor in stopping the war. During this period hundreds of thousands fought, in the North was the Vietnamese army and in the south the people from the National Liberation Front (NFL). While other millions more offered support and protection to the imperialist forces. Another factor that backed up the War was the people’s republic of china. The United States forces bombed Vietnam, but they were prevented from using nuclear weapons through fear that the Chinese government would attack the American forces in Vietnam and other regions (Hall, 2005). Finally, there was a passive and active rebellion by U.S. Soldiers to pull out from the Vietnam War.

Though the first Anti-war movement protests against U.S participation in Vietnam occurred in 1963, the anti-war movement had not begun until 1965. This begun when President Lyndon Johnson ordered the U.S troops fully intervene the Northern side of Vietnam. Through the same period, teachings against the War were conducted in many colleges thus attracting more students to join the Anti-war movement (DeBenedetti& Chatfield, 1990). The anti-war movement was centered on America’s higher educational institutions with the students playing leading roles. This movement attracted urban rebellions in the black community who were by far destabilizing to the U.S than the peace marchers. The number of protestors grew throughout major cities with a whole generation of youths and adults, especially the black and Latino workers who were learning that it was possible to fight back. By 1968, the number of protestors had grown to over seven million with most of its population dominated by the youth.

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After the bombing of the North Vietnam in 1965, this led to conflict of interests in peace activities, which led to another anti-war protest in 1968. This bombing led many U.S citizens to questioning the administrations sincerity in covering war progress and the outright rule of Johnson’s verdict to retire. The Tet American public opinion shifted considerably with many people opposed to President Johnson’s administration. This followed protests from many Americans who forcefully occupied an management building at Columbia University, forcing the police to use brutal force to evict them. After the protests, the anti-war movement became less cohesive and powerful between 1969 and 1973 (Hall, 2005). Many Americans rationally opposed the United States role in the Vietnam War believing that the economic cost was too high. This followed a second movement in Washington that drew an estimate of 500,000 participants.

By 1969, the anti-war movement reached its peak under President Richard Nixon. There were more than two million citizens participating in Vietnam cessation protests athwart the country. The Nixon administration reacted by drawing measures to disable the movement by smearing the movement, and mobilizing supporters withdrawing U.S troops form Vietnam. Ever since the U.S movement in opposition to the Vietnam War has always been regarded as the most victorious antiwar movement in United States history

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In the African American community, racism, class oppression, and sexism are inextricable. This implies that they are bound together and therefore, feminism within the community seeks to fight against these three forces. Alice Walker was among the key symbolic figures and proponents of feminism within the African American community. The A&P story is a comical narration of three checking clerks who seem to have uncontrollable sexual interest on three girls who walk into the store to shop. It shows the sexual power of women over men as the clerks, who are still in their young age except McMahon, seem to appraise the women sexually. The story demonstrates women empowerment from the point of view of black feminism, through the reaction of the three girls. However, they are faced with oppression for their choice to express themselves in the way they dressed. The society either condemns them for being indecent or the men end up having a sexist view of them. All these are forms of oppression that they have to go through. Unwritten principles put a strain on women as they seek to independently express themselves.

The story was written at a period when oppression against women was the norm. Women still lacked a sense of independence and it took the male characters to establish their place in the society. The imaginations that run through Sammy’s head are a clear indication of the lack of empowerment that women had. Just as the girls start shopping, Sammy is quoted imagining in his head that “You never know for sure how girls’ minds work (do you really think it’s a mind in there or just a little buzz like a bee in a glass jar?)” This statement is a clear indication of the ignorance displayed by men when perceiving women. It is an indication that in a man’s mind, back then, women were not quite rational. He also seems not to have any interest in understanding women as he makes huge assumptions about how they think. The statement also has a strong implication that the three girls did not know what they were doing and as a result, they should have felt embarrassed of their actions. What Sammy fails to realize is that the girls are strong humans who are confident of their actions and do not need to feel embarrassed by the reaction they get from people.

There is a clear distinction between the female mind and the female body in the story. The story is however biased against the female mind and focuses more on the female body. There is a desperate need for the male characters in the story to understand the female mind. Feminism is demonstrated in the story both from a negative and a positive side. The beginning statement is sufficient enough to sum up a feminist view of the story. The main character, Sammy, explicitly shows the common denominator of the modern and youthful men. He describes unattractive women and girls in a very disrespectful and negative manner. The first customer that checks out at his spot just as the three girls walked in in bathing suits gets annoyed with him because he kept on drooling at the girls instead of focusing on checking her out.

Similarly, his view of attractive women is nothing short of offensive. He describes the three girls in ways that tells they are simply a sex object to him. The first girl, the chunky one, has a back side that really caught his attention, and he even went further to describe the lady’s bum in a very suggestive manner. “Those two crescents of white just under it, where the sun never seems to hit” (Updike 1026). According to Sammy, the main character, only a certain type of women should expose a lot of meat while other women should have their bodies covered. To him, it is okay for only attractive women to dress in their swim suits and walk into a grocery store, but, it is inappropriate for women with “six children and varicose veins on their legs” to expose their meat.

This kind of reaction to the girls can be slightly understandable if it involved teenagers and men in their early twenties. However, the story shows that this reaction is also a common denominator even to older men as demonstrated by old McMahon. He was unable to control himself as the girls walked away from his counter. He was seen staring at their backs while patting his mouth and sizing up their joints.

The three girls seem to have a profound effect to transform the clerks especially the main character, Sammy. They make these clerks to act in some angry, greedy, and piggish way. The men seem unable to control themselves while staring at the girls. They make comments and gestures that allude to their lack of self-control. The only sane masculine character in the story is Lengel who makes an honest attempts to protect the three girls from the desires of the men while at the same time, he seems to refer to social norms as a way to have the young girls help the men control their desires.

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In contrast, the leading femalecharacter in the story represents the feminist thinking and direction. Sammy even calls her Queenie, to imply her sense of independence, control, and confidence. She displays attitudes and characteristics that would make her at par with her male counterparts. She seems quite confident and she is not affected by the way people react to her or the opinion of everyone. Her confidence also gets to intimidate others. This is displayed when all the other customers decided to avoid the scene and move over to Stockesie’s counter. The intimidation is also seen by the way the other two girls walk around her. They seem clueless, not knowing what they want and always relying on Queenie for direction. The ultimate power is shown, when the girls become completely oblivious to the unsuspected little heroism showed by Sammy. He acted in their defense, thinking that they would at least notice and probably walk out together in appreciation for his heroic act. However, with Sammy’s sexist, and oppressive mindset, the women never bothered or wanted anything to do with him.

Conclusion

Despite the comic nature of the narration, the story shows a side of women that most proponents of feminism would criticize. In the mind of the main character, women are simply an object but the main female character displays a different, confident, and independent nature typical of feminists. Therefore, despite the fact that the story shows the extent in which the society trails in respecting women, the three girls are used to show the empowerment of women in the society.

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Decision Tree Analysis

As per the given demand scenarios, the demand can be 25,000 (D1), 60,000 (D2) or 100,000 (D3) with probabilities 0.30 (P1), 0.40 (P2) and 0.30 (P3) respectively. For each of the demand scenarios the Artek Manufacturing can exercise any of the two manufacturing capacity options and therefore the expected value of the manufacturing cost will vary as per the chosen capacity option and the uncertain demand scenario. The above situation can be represented by the following decision tree.

The value for ‘option1,’ with the first demand scenario D1 is: $ 550,000 which has the probability 0.30 to occur and so on. Analyzing the above decision tree, the value of uncertain outcomes (the nodes) can be obtained by multiplying the value of the outcomes by their probability. The total for that node of the tree is the total of these values.
Therefore, the total expected cost associated with Option 1 is given as:
0.30 (550,000) + 0.40 (620,000) + 0.30 (700,000) = 165,000+ 248,000+ 210,000 =$ 623,000
The total expected cost associated with capacity option 2 is given as:
0.30 (350,000) + 0.40 (700,000) + 0.30 (1,100,000) = 105,000+ 280,000+ 330,000 =$ 715,000

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Hence, comparing the expected costs for the two capacity options it is ascertained that the expected cost for the first capacity option is lesser than the second one or the first option would be preferred owing to its less cost.